Materials Performance

OCT 2018

Materials Performance is the world's most widely circulated magazine dedicated to corrosion prevention and control. MP provides information about the latest corrosion control technologies and practical applications for every industry and environment.

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OCTOBER 2018 MATERIALSPERFORMANCE: VOL. 57, NO. 10 43 infrastructure to the quality it was in 1988, with a predicted U.S.$2.1 trillion funding gap compared to the estimated funding. In 1990, it was estimated that between U.S.$1 and U.S.$3 trillion is required to rehabilitate all the rein- forced concrete structures suffering from distress. It is unlikely that this sit- uation is improving. More than two miles (3.2 km) out of every five miles (8 km) of America's urban interstates are congested. Traffic delays cost the country U.S.$160 billion in wasted time and fuel in 2014. One out of every five miles of highway pavement is in poor condition and our roads have a signifi- cant and increasing backlog of rehabilitation needs. Almost 40% of our bridges are 50 years or older, with 56,007 rated as structurally deficient in 2016, averaging 188 million trips across a structurally deficient bridge each day. The average age of the 90,580 dams in the country is 56 years with the number of high-hazard potential dams climbing to nearly 15,500 in 2016, with deficient high-hazard potential dams estimated at 2,170. Nearly 240 million Americans rely on the nation's 14,748 treatment plants for wastewater sani- tation, yet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that at least 23,000 to 75,000 sanitary sewer overflow events occur in the United States each year from the 800,000 miles (1.3 million km) of public sewers and 500,000 miles (0.8 million km) of private lateral sewers. There are an estimated 240,000 water main breaks per year in the United States, wasting over two trillion gallons (7.6 trillion liters) of treated drinking water accord- ing to the ASCE Report Card 2017. Not only is our existing infrastructure in deteriorating condition, but the need for new infrastructure continues to grow both for developed and devel- oping countries. In developed nations, reduction of traffic congestion, faster transportation networks, and the achievement of larger aspirations drive demand. In developing countries, as the standard of living improves so does the need for infrastructure. Since such a large quantity of infrastructure is constructed from concrete that is reinforced with conventional steel, corro- sion will continue to be an issue. The existing infrastructure components such as bridges, buildings, airports, dams, piers, canals, etc. continue to deteriorate, requiring either replacement or more frequent and expensive repairs. Concrete construction and maintenance are growth areas with cor- rosion of reinforcement the primary driver of much of this growth. JOHN R . S CUL LY When thinking about the future of corrosion control technologies deployed by industry over the next 25 years and beyond, we should think about both new innovative developments on the horizon and also the state of maturity of existing corrosion control technologies that continue to evolve and become more sophisticated. These stages of maturity mark the progress of existing corrosion control strategies. In my opinion, every strategy has a conceptual or notional phase, a proof-of-concept stage, and a qualitative implementation stage where the evolution of knowledge leads to the identification of certain metrics and tar- get parameters that define the threshold for adequate control of a certain form of corrosion. At this point there is often a data-rich, computational implementation stage that becomes very quantified. The first stage is a point in development where the idea of the technology becomes widely accepted but it is still somewhat conceptual. For instance, in the evolution of ICCP as a corrosion control method, the concept became widely accepted that an actively corroding metal could be polarized to potentials equal to or more negative than its reversible electrode potential for metal dissolution and thereby achieve thermodynamic immunity. Or alternatively, cathodic polar- ization could be achieved to a potential between the freely corroding poten- tial and the reversible electrode (Nernst) potential for metal dissolution and

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