Materials Performance

NOV 2018

Materials Performance is the world's most widely circulated magazine dedicated to corrosion prevention and control. MP provides information about the latest corrosion control technologies and practical applications for every industry and environment.

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Page 34 of 72

32 NOVEMBER 2018 W W W.MATERIALSPERFORMANCE.COM CHEMICAL TREATMENT U Carbon capture, utilization, and stor- age (CCUS) can not only reduce car- bon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by per- manent geological storage but can also enhance oil and gas recovery. However, if anthropogenic CO 2 cap- tured from coal-fired power plants is applied as the displacement gas, acidic gas impurities (SO x , NO x , and hydrogen sulfide [H 2 S]) in power plant-produced CO 2 could eventually corrode materials in CCUS systems, including steels, polymers, cements, and even rocks. When steels corrode under a high-pressure, high-temper- ature multiphase environment con- taining supercritical CO 2 , various gas impurities, salts, crude oil, and solid particles merit further investigation. Utilization of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from coal-fired power plants or other anthropogenic CO 2 sources as the injection gas to enhance oil recovery (EOR) was thought to be feasible, economical, and urgent owing to the fast-increasing demand of CO 2 for EOR purposes. It can reduce the CO 2 emission after its utilization in the EOR process, and this kind of technology is often referred to as carbon capture, utiliza- tion, and storage (CCUS), as depicted in Figure 1. There are various types of other CCUS systems, including enhanced coal- bed methane recovery, enhanced geother- mal systems, enhanced shale gas recovery, and enhanced gas recover y. 1 CCUS can lower the total cost of carbon emission Corrosion Issues of Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Yong Xiang, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Process Fluid Filtration and Separation, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China reduction compared to carbon capture and storage technology. Both technologies are thought to be effective ways for human b ein gs to miti gat e th e g lob al climat e change problem before the large-scale application of renewable energy sources. Typically, CO 2 captured from coal-fired power plants contains a certain amount of impurities, such as SO x , NO x , hydrogen sul- fide (H 2 S), O 2 , Ar, N 2 , H 2 , CO, and water (H 2 O), depending on the specific capture technology. This feature is rather different from the CO 2 produced from the natural CO 2 well , which usually contains high- purity CO 2 . If the impurities in anthropo- genic CO 2 are removed to an ultra-low impurity concentration , it will greatly increase the CCUS cost, one of the principal obstacles for large-scale applications of the technology. If impurities were not thor- oughly removed, they may have a corrosive effect on CO 2 pipelines 2-5 and could also have chemical reactions with caprocks, which could possibly affect CO 2 injectivity and storage safety. In recent years, the lack of CO 2 supplies from natural CO 2 wells for EOR has resulted in a great need for the utilization of CO 2 captured from anthropogenic CO 2 sources, such as coal-fired power plants. In fact, small amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), O 2 , and NO x have been co-injected with CO 2 into oil reservoirs for more than 30 years in North America , 6 although the impurity concentration was not clear. In China , there are more than 10 CO 2 -EOR projects under planning or in service and several of them use CO 2 captured from anthropogenic sources. 1 However, a few of them have

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