Materials Performance

NOV 2014

Materials Performance is the world's most widely circulated magazine dedicated to corrosion prevention and control. MP provides information about the latest corrosion control technologies and practical applications for every industry and environment.

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67 NACE INTERNATIONAL: VOL. 53, NO. 11 MATERIALS PERFORMANCE NOVEMBER 2014 Material of Construction for Underground Coal Gasification Wells alumina-based alloy, however, cannot be used for temperatures below 1,000 °C, as the formation of protective Al 2 O 3 only takes place above this temperature. Conclusions The UCG process environment is a gas- eous mixture at 600 to 1,200 °C depending on the process control at the injector wells. B a sed on th e an aly se s from st an d ard Ellingham diagrams of free energy and the composition of UCG-produced gas from the coal seams of western India, the envi- ronment was found to predominantly pro- mote high-temperature oxidation. Accord- ingly, suitable materials of construction h av e b e en i d enti f i e d a s UN S K 4 1 5 4 5 , UNS S31600, and UNS S67956 for design temperatures of 600, 900, and 1,200 °C, respectively. Acknowledgment The authors thank ONGC management for providing the necessary infrastructure for the study and its gracious approval for publication of the article. References 1 E. Burton, J. Friedmann, R . Upadhye, "Best Practices in Underground Coal Gasification," Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, and U.S. DOE JIP report, 2006. 2 B. Gleeson, "Alloy Degradation under Oxidiz- ing-Sulfidizing Conditions at Elevated Tem- perature," Materials Research 7, 1 (2004): pp. 61-69. 3 G.Y. L ai , High-Temp erature Corrosion of Engineering Alloys (Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 1990). 4 J.F. Norton, "High Temperature Materials C o r r o si o n i n C o a l G a si f i c a t i o n At m o - spheres," Proc. of seminar held at the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities (Petten, The Nether- lands: CEC High Temperature Materials, 1984). 5 A.S. Khanna, Introduction to High Tempera- ture Oxidation and Corrosion (Materials Park, OH: ASM, 2004). 6 J.R . Davis, ASM Specialty Handbook: Heat- Resistant Materials (Materials Park, OH: ASM, 1997). 7 Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System (UNS): 12th ed. (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM, 2012). 8 R.A. Rapp, ed., "High Temperature Corrosion, NACE Reference 6," Proc. of Conference on Effects of Extreme Temperatures on Various Materials, held March 2-6, 1981 (Houston, TX: NACE International, 1983). 9 R.C. John, "Engineering Assessments of Oxi- dation of Commercial Alloys," CORROSION/ 96, paper no. 171 (Houston, TX: NACE Inter- national, 1996). SUBRAHMANYA BHAT is Dy. General Manager of Oil & Natural Gas Corp. ( O N G C ) , L t d . R e g i o n a l G e o s c i e n c e Laboratories, ONGC Cauvery Basin, 54, R.R. Towers, 200 Feet Rd., Villivakkam 600049, India, e-mail: sbhat_ongc@yahoo. or He has served in this capacity since June 2014 and previously worked for 17 years at the Institute of Engineering and Ocean Technology, the research and development wing of ONGC, at Navi Mumbai. He has 30 years of experience in hydrocarbon explo- ration and production activities in India. He has executed 99 studies of failure analyses, corrosion audits, material selec- tion for oilfield installations, and corrosion inhibitor studies. His major contribution is in the area of material selection for deep water fields, extremely severe sour gas field developments in India and other international areas of ONGC, underground coal gasification wells, acid gas injection, coal bed methane, in situ combustion EOR fields, sulfur recovery units and high sour gas marginal field developments of the western offshore. He has published and presented numerous papers and articles and has a patent pending. He received the PETROFED Innovator Award in 2013 from the Union Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India and best research paper award in 2013 from Director (Offshore) of ONGC. He received the NACE International Gateway India Section (NIGIS) runner-up award in 2011 for the best individual contribution in corrosion for an oil and gas-related organi- zation in India and is the National Awardee for Excellence in Corrosion Science in 2005 from NIGIS. He is a member of NACE. BIPIN KUMAR is chief engineer at ONGC. He has been with the organization for 21 years. He has worked in various capacities including maintenance, operation of recip- rocating air compressors, centrifugal pumps and Cummins engines, planning and provisioning of the spare parts of surface installations, and work-over of rig equipment. He has been involved in various aspects of oilfield corrosion and its mitigation, particularly failure analyses, corrosion audits, and material selection. His significant contributions are in fractog- raphy using Hitachi scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectros- copy (SEM-EDS), metallographic studies through optical microscopes, hardness testing, and inclusion studies for failure analysis. He has published and presented nine papers in journals and conferences. He is a graduate in mechanical engineering and is credited with a certificate course on advanced pipeline engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. He received two best research paper awards from Director (offshore) ONGC. M.V. KATARKI is general manager (retired) of the ONGC Materials and Corrosion Section. He was with ONGC since 1973 and was responsible for construction of installations and pipelines of various oil and gas fields of ONGC offshore and onshore, cathodic protection for long- distance cross-country oil and gas trunk pipelines, maintenance of infield pipelines and installations, etc. Before his retire- ment in 2010, he was the group head involved in materials selection for a wide range of operating conditions, failure analyses and various aspects of corrosion problems in oilfield equipment, piping and pipelines, and recommending suitable remedial measures. WANTED Practical Technical Articles • Distinctive Cover Photos • News • Product Releases Send corrosion-related articles, photos, and other information for publication to: MP Managing Editor, NACE International, 15835 Park Ten Place, Houston, TX 77084 For MP article submission guidelines and more detailed information on types of information sought, call +1 281-228-6207, e-mail:, or see the Publications section of the NACE Web site:

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