Materials Performance

DEC 2014

Materials Performance is the world's most widely circulated magazine dedicated to corrosion prevention and control. MP provides information about the latest corrosion control technologies and practical applications for every industry and environment.

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60 DECEMBER 2014 MATERIALS PERFORMANCE NACE INTERNATIONAL: VOL. 53, NO. 12 MATERIALS SELECTION & DESIGN I Recent developments associated with carbon capture and storage have sig- nifcantly increased the use of carbon steel pipelines for the transport of su- percritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). These pipelines are not specifcally covered by ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156, which applies to oil and gas produc- tion; however, it is prudent to consider the possible risks of sulfde stress cracking and hydrogen-induced crack- ing that can arise in the presence of a liquid water phase. In 2008, leaders of the Group of Eight (G8), a forum of governments from eight industrialized countries, committed to broad deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by 2020 and recommended the launch of 20 largescale CCS demonstra tion projects by 2010. Since 2008, govern m ents have c ommitt ed $26 bi l lion in funding for largescale demonstration CCS projects. Although progress has been made since 2008, the 2010 target was not achieved for a variety of reasons. To date, there is no i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g re e m e n t o n a g l o b a l response to climate change. A charge on carbon emissions, and asyettobedeter mined revenuegenerating uses for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) will be required to make many of these projects economical. Currently, only enhanced oil recovery projects have positive economics. Yet the continuing drive for CC S, along with the positive economics for enhanced oil recovery, have signif icantly increased th e numb er of projects worldwide that have constructed carbon steel (CS) pipelines for transport of supercritical CO 2 . The long, successful history of utilizing bare CS pipelines for this transport is simply due to the dehydration of C O 2 to le vel s that do not p ermit a separate liquid water phase to be present. However, regardless of how well pipelines are designed and operated, there is always the potential for water to be present at some time during the life of the pipeline. This raises the question of whether sul fide stress cracking (SSC) and hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), as described by NACE International Standard ANSI/NACE/ MR0175/ISO 15156, 1 should be considered in the design and construction of super critical CO 2 pipelines. This is especially rel evant where the CO 2 source is gas contain ing hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) that is recycled from gas plants. Industry Standards and Requirements Even though supercritical CO 2 pipelines have been in service in the United States for more than 35 years, there are few standards that apply to their design and construction. Supercritical CO 2 pipelines are designed and constructed in accordance with ASME B31.4, 2 which specifically covers CO 2 pipe lines; however, there is no mention of the presence of H 2 S in the CO 2 or any require ments to consider the potential for crack ing from H 2 S. Should Supercritical CO 2 Pipelines Comply With ANSI/ NACE MR0175/ISO 15156? B. Craig, FnaCe, Stress Engineering Services, Denver, Colorado

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