Materials Performance

MAY 2015

Materials Performance is the world's most widely circulated magazine dedicated to corrosion prevention and control. MP provides information about the latest corrosion control technologies and practical applications for every industry and environment.

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56 MAY 2015 MATERIALS PERFORMANCE NACE INTERNATIONAL: VOL. 54, NO. 5 CHEMICAL TREATMENT No pits were detected for the SS coupons, whereas pitting was obser ved for CS as shown in Table 2. General corrosion rate values were very high, especially for CS in both conditions. Localized corrosion rates for CS were much higher than the weight loss general corrosion rate values, since profilometr y calculates corrosion rates from thickness loss alone. Photos of the coupons are shown in Figure 3, while the corresponding pitting profiles are shown in Figure 4. Conclusions No evidence of SCC or secondary crack- ing was found in SSRTs using the scale dis- solver solution. Some reduction in plastic strain-to-failure and time-to-failure ratios was observed, but this drop was not drastic enough to warrant SCC concerns. Electrochemical testing substantiated the SSRT data, with neither material show- ing any cracking susceptibility at OCP con- ditions. However, in oxidizing environ- ments, susceptibility to cracking increases for low-alloy steel. Weight loss testing indicated very high corrosion rates (>1,450 mpy) for CS, thereby substantiating EIS results. High corrosion rates (>225 mpy) were also observed for SS. Compreh ensive corrosion and S C C testing should be performed to address all aspects of casing/tubing material behav- ior in selecting a chemical or mitigation measure. It was recommended that this scale dis- solver not be used for this particular gas lift application. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the support provided by ConocoPhillips Nor way in sponsoring this project. They would also like to thank ConocoPhillips management for granting permission to publish this work. References 1 C.C. Patton, Oilfield Water Systems (1981), pp. 49-85. 2 J.K. Fink, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids (2012), pp. 253- 274. 3 R . Heidersbach, Metallurg y and Corrosion Control in Oil and gas Production (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011), pp. 27-28. 4 C.J. Hinrichsen, "Preventing Scale Deposition in Oil Production Facilities: An Industry Re- view," CORROSION/98, paper no. 61 (Hous- ton, TX: NACE International, 1998). 5 E. Mackay, "Predicting Insitu Sulphate Scale Deposition and the Impact on Produced Ion Concentrations," Trans IChemE, Vol. 81, Part A (March 2003), pp. 326-332. 6 M.M. Jordan, K. Sjursaether, M.C. Edgerton, R . Bruce, "Inhibition of Lead and Zinc Sul- phide Scale Deposits Formed during Produc- tion from High Temperature Oil and Conden- sate Reservoirs," SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2000, paper no. 64427 (Richardson, TX: SPE International, 2000). 7 M.S.H. Bader, "Sulfate Scale Problems in Oil Fields Water Injection Operations," Desalina- tion 201 (2006): pp. 100-105. 8 M.C.M. Bezerra, F.F. Rosario, A.A. Rocha, F.P.L. Franca, "Scale Prediction and Remedia- tion for Deep Water Fields," SPE 5th Interna- tional Symposium on Oilfield Scale 2003, paper no. 80403 (Richardson, TX: SPE, 2002). 9 O. Vazquez, E. Mackay, K. Sorbie, "A Two- Phase Near-Wellbore Simulator to Model Non-Aqueous Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Treat- ments," J. of Petroleum Science and Engineer- ing 82-83, 3-4 (2012): pp. 90-99. 10 P. Bedrikovetsky, R.M.P. Silva, J.S. Daher, J.A.T. Gomes, V.C. Amorim, "Well-Data-Based Pre- diction of Productivity Decline due to Sul- phate Scaling," J. of Petroleum Science and Engineering 68, 1-2 (2009): pp. 60-70. 11 ASTM G129-00, "Standard Practice for Slow Strain Rate Testing to Evaluate the Suscepti- bility of Metallic Materials to Environmen- t a l l y A s s i s t e d C r a c k i n g " ( We s t C o n - shohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2006). SUDHAKAR MAHAJANAM is a staff corro- sion engineer at ConocoPhillips, P10-06- 6018, 600 N. Dairy Ashford, Houston, TX 77079, e-mail: sudhakar.p.mahajanam@ He has been with the company since June 2007, providing expertise in metallurgy, corrosion, and failure analysis. He has a B.E. degree in metallurgical engi- neering from the Indian Institute of Tech- nology, Roorkee, India; an M.S. degree and Ph.D. from the Department of Materi- als Science and Engineering at The Ohio State University; and an MBA from Mc- Combs School of Business, University of Texas at Austin. He is an active member of NACE International and SPE International. He has made 18 presentations at interna- tional meetings and conferences, has pub- lished 24 papers, and is a technical re- viewer for seven peer-reviewed journals. He was the recipient of the 2010 Out- standing Technical Editor Award from SPE and received the 3rd place Harvey Herro Award in Applied Corrosion Technology at the NACE Student Poster Session during CORROSION 2005. RAYMUNDO CASE is a staff scientist at ConocoPhillips, Bartlesville Technology Center, Hwy. 60 & 123, Bartlesville, OK 74004, e-mail: He is a metallurgical engineer with 23 years of experience in materials selection, fitness for service, and corrosion control in the oil and gas indus- tries. He has a Ph.D. from UMIST, United Kingdom, and is a member of NACE. KAREN CLOKE is a retired senior staff technician at ConocoPhillips, 404 Country Rd. 220, Eureka Springs, AR 72631. She was involved with the company's Global Production Excellence, providing exper- tise in surface profilometry, a tool for as- sessing pitting. She is co-author of the CORROSION 2013 conference paper, "The Use of White Light Profilometry to Assess Pitting Corrosion." JORDAN DANIELS is an electrochemistry technician at ConocoPhillips, e-mail: He has been with the company since April 2012. JEREMY R. DUNN is a senior corrosion tech nician at ConocoPhillips, e-mail: He has worked at the company since September 2012, pro- viding testing and analysis in metallurgy, corrosion, and failure analysis. He has a B.S. degree in environmental health and safety management from Northeastern State University and recently obtained his Certified Safety Professional certification. He is an active member of NACE, the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE), and the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP). FRODE BREDAL is a staff materials and corrosion engineer at ConocoPhillips Nor- way, Ekofiskveien 35, 4056 Tananger, Nor- way, e-mail: He has been with the company since Decem- ber 1988. Over the years he has been pro- viding expertise in all aspects related to corrosion control in oilfield operations. He has also worked as a process and water treatment engineer providing expertise in various aspects of flow assurance such as separation, scale, wax, and H 2 S control. He has a degree in mechanical engineering from Soer-Troendelag University College, Norway.

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