Materials Performance

JUN 2016

Materials Performance is the world's most widely circulated magazine dedicated to corrosion prevention and control. MP provides information about the latest corrosion control technologies and practical applications for every industry and environment.

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44 JUNE 2016 MATERIALS PERFORMANCE NACE INTERNATIONAL: VOL. 55, NO. 6 CHEMICAL TREATMENT W Deposition of unwanted materials, in- cluding mineral scales, suspended matter, microbiological growth, and corrosion products, continues to plague the operation of industrial water systems. This article presents performance data on polyamino poly- ether methylene phos phonic acid (PAPEMP) on various mineral scales commonly encountered in boiler, cooling, desalination, geothermal, gas, and oil systems. Water that is available for domestic and industrial applications typically contains many impurities. These impurities are generally classified in five broad categories: • Dissolved inorganic compounds (i.e., carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, and fluorides of calcium, magnesium, bar- ium, and strontium; small amounts of copper [Cu], iron [Fe], and manganese [Mn]); and other substances • Dissolved gases (e.g., oxygen [O 2 ], nitrogen [N 2 ], carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], and hydrogen sulfide [H 2 S]) • Suspended matter (e.g., clay, silt, fat, and oil) • Soluble organic compound s (e.g., humic acid, fulvic acid, and tannic acid) • Microorganisms (e.g., algae, bacteria, and fungi) The accumulation of unwanted depos- its on equipment surfaces is a phenomenon that occurs in virtually all processes in which untreated water is heated. The depo- sition of these materials, especially on heat exchanger surfaces in boiler, cooling, geo- thermal, and distillation systems, can cause a number of operational problems such as plugged pipes and pumps, inefficient use of water treatment chemicals, increased oper- ational costs, lost production due to system downtime, and ultimately heat exchanger failure. 1 Greater water conser vation has been a driver for operating industrial water systems at higher concentration cycles, which in creases the potential for deposit buildup on heat exchanger surfaces. Operat- ing industrial water systems under stressed conditions demands a better understanding of the feed and recirculating systems' water chemistr y as well as the development of innovative additives and technological ap- proaches for controlling scale, deposit, cor- rosion, and biofouling. T h e m o st p r o m i si n g s c a l e c o n t r o l method among various approaches involves adding substoichiometric dosages, typically a few ppm, of water-soluble additives to the feedwater. Additives commonly used in water treatment formulation fall into two categories: • Dissolved inorganic compounds (i.e., carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, and fluorides of calcium, magnesium, bar- ium, and strontium; small amounts of copper [Cu], iron [Fe], and manganese [Mn] ions; and other substances) • Polym eric (e.g., homop olym ers of acr ylic acid , maleic acid , itaconic A Multifunctional Additive for Controlling Inorganic Foulants in Industrial Water Systems Zahid amjad, Walsh University, North Canton, Ohio

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