Materials Performance Supplements


Materials Performance is the world's most widely circulated magazine dedicated to corrosion prevention and control. MP provides information about the latest corrosion control technologies and practical applications for every industry and environment.

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High-resolution XPS analysis confirmed that the dominant oxide on the internal surfaces of the control (no inhibitor) pipe was hematite, while the oxide on the inhib- itor-treated pipes was magnetite oxide. These observations reaffirmed that the VCI presence in water promotes formation of a protective thin layer of black magnetite that adheres well to the steel pipe surface due to its magnetic properties and provides very satisfactory corrosion control performance. In summar y, this investigation con- firmed that the new VCI ican be an effective replacement for the toxic hydrazine for steel materials exposed to hot steam/hot envi- ronments. The major advantage of the new VCI is its very low toxicity, making it safe and easy to handle in typical application systems. The oral toxicity test measure of the LD50 "Lethal Dose" of the new VCI is 2,190 mg/L for rats. Hydrazine has an LD50 of only ~15- 22 mg/L, indicating a very high toxicity. The new amine-based VCI corrosion inhibitor is very promising and can reduce environmental impact, improve the work environment, reduce deposition that mini- mizes the frequency of chemical cleaning for through-flow boilers, and reduce pipe wall thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion. References 1. G. Choudhary, H. Hansen, "Human Health Perspective of Environmental Exposure to Hydrazines: A Review," Web (05-Jan. 2017). 2. A.A. Berk, "Observations on the Use of Cyclo- h e xy l amin e in St eam - h eatin g Sy st em s" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, 1944). 3. Water Purification Handbook, Chapter 19, "Condensate System Corrosion," Web (09 Mar. 2017). 4. E.W. Schmidt, Hydrazine and Its Derivatives: Preparation, Properties, Application, Vol. 2. (New York, NY: J. Wiley, 1984). 5. "Cyclohexylamine," Chemical Book—Chemi- cal Search Engine, Web (24 Aug. 2016), http:// Property_EN_CB8139274. 6. "CYCLOHEXYLAMINE," Chemical Market Re- porter (16 Nov. 1998): 41, General OneFile, Web (23 Aug. 2016). 7. "Cyclohexylamine (Hexahydroaniline)," Web (24 Aug. 2016). 8. L. Estevão, and R . Nascimento, "Modifica- tions in the Volatilization Rate of Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors by Means of Host–Guest Systems," Corrosion Science 43, 6 (2001). 9. L.L. Schneider, D.C. Hutchins, "Alternative Chemical Treatment for Cyclically Operated Unit-DEHA," International Water Conference J. (1986): p. 21. 10. D.I. Bain, G.G. Engstrom, M.T. Fryer, "Recent Advances in Volatile Oxygen Scavenger Tech- nology," CORROSION (1994): p. 201. 11. D.M. Ellis, D.G. Cuisia, H.W. Thompson, "The Oxidation and Degradation Products of Vola- tile Oxygen Scavengers and their Relevance in Plant Applications," CORROSION (1987): p. 432. 12. K.L. Rossel, J.A. Kelly, J. Richardson, "Steam Cycle Protection for Pulp and Paper Sys- tems," CORROSION (1991): p. 184. 13. H.W. Thompson, "Use of Oxygen Scavengers in Wet Lay-up of Boilers and Auxiliaries," CORROSION (1986): p. 174. 14. D.G. Cuisia, J.W. Rudolph, C.M. Hwa, T.E. Tehle, Jr., "New Oxygen Scavenger for Boiler Systems," CORROSION (1983), p. 83. 15. "HEL AMIN-How It Works," Web (08 Jan. 2017). 16. "Amine Proves Effective Alternative to Hydra- zine," Web (08 Jan. 2017). 17. "HELAMIN® BRW 150H," Web (09 Jan. 2017). 18. "Fulmer Technical Services," Physics Bulletin 21.4 (1970): pp. 147-48. 19. B.A. Miksic, Preservation, Lay-Up and Moth- balling Handbook, 3rd ed. (2014). 20. B.A. Miksic, "Use of Vapor phase Inhibitors for Corrosion Protection of Metal Products," CORROSION/83, paper no. 308 (Houston, TX: NACE International, 1983). 21. B.A. Miksic, R.H. Miller, "Fundamental Prin- ciples of Corrosion Protection with Vapor Phase Inhibitors," 5th European Symp. on Corrosion Inhibitors, EFC (1980). 22. B.A. Miksic, VpCI Technolog y Handbook (St. Paul, MN: Cortec Corp., 2014). 23. B. Bavarian, "Comparison of the Corrosion Protection Effectiveness of Vapor Corrosion In h i b i t o r a n d D r y Ai r Sy st e m s ," Eu r o - corr/2014. 24. M.H. Taylor, "Corrosion Inhibitor," Patent US2060138. 25. C.D. Kuhfeldt, J.M. Br yson, Ashland , Inc., "Process for Retarding the Formation of Cor- rosion on Metal Surfaces," Patent US650344 ( Jan. 2017). 26. ASME B31.1, "Power Piping" (New York, NY: ASME, 2016). 27. ASTM G123-2015, "Standard Test Method for Evaluating Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Alloys with Different Nickel Con- tent in Boiling Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution" (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2015). This article is based on CORROSION 2018 paper no. 11012, presented in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. BEHZAD BAVARIAN is a professor in the Department of Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Management and direc- tor of the W.M. Keck Advanced Materials Laboratory at California State University N o r t h r i d g e ( C S U N ) , N o r t h r i d g e , California, USA, email: Bavarian@csun. edu. He received his Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering at The Ohio State University in 1980. He has been a member of NACE International for 35 years and received a 2012 NACE Technical Achievement Award for contributions to corrosion and corro- sion engineering. L I S A R E I N E R i s a p ro f e s s o r i n t h e Department of Manufacturing Systems E n g i n e e r i n g a n d M a n a g e m e n t a n d manager of the W.M. Keck Advanced Materials Laboratory at CSUN. JAMES HOLDEN James E. Holden is the director of Energy and Engineered Services at Cortec Corp. He has more than 40 years of experience in the design and manufacture of rotating equipment such as jet engines, gas and steam turbines, and gearboxes. He is a Professional Engineer, has an M.B.A., and has a Master Black Belt in Six Sigma. He is a member of NACE.. BORIS A. MIKSIC, FNACE, is president and chief executive of Cortec Corp., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. He has served in this capacity for 40 years. Cortec is a world leader in the manufacture of corrosion inhibitors in several industries, including modern plastic products. Miksic holds more than 43 U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications and has presented papers throughout the world. He received the NACE International F.N. Speller Award for longtime contributions to corrosion engineering. A NACE Fellow, he has been a NACE member for more than 40 years. Amine-Based Vapor Phase Corrosion Inhibitor Alternatives to Hydrazine for Steam-Generating Systems and Power Plants 15 CORTEC SUPPLEMENT TO MP MATERIALS PERFORMANCE JUNE 2018

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